This study aims to provide a holistic assessment of the implementation and performance of the Urban Agenda for the European Union (UAEU). The UAEU is a multi-level governance framework for dialogue and collaboration that was launched in 2016 to identify and tackle urban challenges by bringing together Member States, cities, the European Commission and other stakeholders. The study explores how far the objectives of the UAEU (as described in its founding document, the Pact of Amsterdam) have been attained, and provides insight into the strengths, opportunities, challenges and shortcomings encountered throughout the implementation of the UAEU to date. It also identifies areas for improvement and considers how to make the UAEU more effective in future. The study was carried out by external consultants from Ipsos and Technopolis Group in 2019. The evidence base includes both secondary data (gleaned via a review of relevant literature and monitoring data) and primary data (an online consultation, as well as over 70 in-depth interviews with UAEU stakeholders and participants).