This Background Report to the HPF 2022 Roadmap for Recovery from the Covid-19 Pandemic sets out the reasoned justification for the 22 proposed actions required to ensure that the recovery is regenerative and just. The Pandemic has highlighted importance of the goals of sustainable urbanisation, embodied in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and New Urban Agenda (NUA), in securing the health and well-being of all. It is not just a matter of providing efficient and effective healthcare systems but health-enhancing towns, cities and regions. The pandemic has therefore made the implementation of the NUA more urgent. It demands that recovery should not be driven by short-term fiscal goals but based on a presumption in favour of disadvantaged and excluded people and communities, and the regeneration and resuscitation of the urban landscape in its fullest sense. In response to these concerns, HPF has set out a Roadmap for a Just and Regenerative Recovery based on the principles and evidence in this Background Report. It sets out the key steps that need to be taken if the full potential contribution of the available professional expertise and experience can be harnessed to help respond to, recover from the pandemic, and build resilience to future global shocks. This background report presents the general principles and thematic responses.